multiple devices

The scheduling of OpenCL devices can be optimized on most systems using the “OpenCL scheduling profile” settings. However, if your system is equipped with more than one GPU, you might want to set the relative device priority manually. To do this you need to select the “default” scheduling profile and change the settings in the “opencl_device_priority” configuration parameter.

It is important to understand how darktable uses OpenCL devices. Each processing sequence of an image – to convert an input to the final output using a history stack – is run in a pixelpipe. There are five different types of pixelpipe in darktable. One type is responsible for processing the center image view (or full view) in darkroom mode, another pixelpipe processes the preview image (navigation window, also required for histograms and more internal stuff relevant for correct output of the full view). Another preview pixelpipe would be required for showing a second darkroom window. There can be one of each of these three pixelpipes running at any time, with the full and preview pixelpipes running in parallel. In addition there can be multiple parallel pixelpipes performing file exports as well as multiple parallel pixelpipes generating thumbnails. If an OpenCL device is available, darktable dynamically allocates it to one specific pixelpipe for one run and releases it afterwards.

The computational demand varies significantly depending on the type of pixelpipe being executed. The preview image and thumbnails are low resolution and can be processed quickly, whereas processing the center image view or the second window is more demanding. A full export pixelpipe is more demanding still.

The configuration parameter “opencl_device_priority” holds a string with the following structure:


Each letter represents one specific OpenCL device. There are five fields in the parameter string separated by a slash, each representing one type of pixelpipe. a,b,c... defines the devices that are allowed to process the center image (full) pixelpipe. Likewise devices d,e,f... can process the preview pixelpipe, devices g,h,i... the export pixelpipes, devices j,k,l... the thumbnail pixelpipes and finally devices m,n,o... preview pixelpipe for the second window. An empty field means that no OpenCL device may serve this type of pixelpipe.

darktable has an internal numbering system, whereby the first available OpenCL device receives the number 0. All further devices are numbered consecutively. This number, together with the device name, is displayed when you start darktable with darktable -d opencl. You can specify a device either by number or by its canonical name (upper/lower case and whitespace do not matter). If you have more than one device with the same name you need to use the device numbers in order to differentiate them.

A device specifier can be prefixed with an exclamation mark !, in which case the device is excluded from processing a given pixelpipe. You can also use an asterisk * as a wildcard, representing all devices not previously explicitly mentioned in that group.

Sequence order within a group matters – darktable will read the list from left to right and whenever it tries to allocate an OpenCL device to a pixelpipe it will scan the devices in that order, taking the first free device it finds.

If a pixelpipe process is about to be started and all GPUs in the corresponding group are busy, darktable automatically processes the image on the CPU by default. You can enforce GPU processing by prefixing the list of allowed GPUs with a plus sign +. In this case darktable will not use the CPU but rather suspend processing until the next permitted OpenCL device is available.

darktable’s default setting for “opencl_device_priority” is */!0,*/*/*/!0,*.

Any detected OpenCL device is permitted to process the center view image. The first OpenCL device (0) is not permitted to process both preview pixelpipes. As a consequence, if there is only one GPU available on your system, the preview pixelpipes will always be processed on the CPU, keeping your single GPU exclusively for the more demanding center image view. This is a reasonable setting for most systems. No such restrictions apply to export and thumbnail pixelpipes.

The default is a good choice if you have only one device. If you have several devices it forms a reasonable starting point. However, as your devices might have quite different levels of processing power, it makes sense to invest some time optimizing your priority list.

Here is an example. Let’s assume we have a system with two devices, a fast Nvidia Quadro RTX 4000 and a slower GeForce GTX 1050. darktable (started with darktable -d opencl) will report the following devices:

[opencl_init] successfully initialized.
[opencl_init] here are the internal numbers and names of
                          OpenCL devices available to darktable:
[opencl_init]           0       'NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1050'
[opencl_init]           1       'NVIDIA CUDA Quadro RTX 4000'
[opencl_init] FINALLY: opencl is AVAILABLE on this system.

with the canonical names shown above as nvidiagforcegtx1050 and nvidiacudaquadrortx4000

Here, the GeForce GTX 1050 is detected as the first device and the Quadro RTX 4000 as the second. This order will normally not change unless the hardware or driver configuration is modified, but it’s better to use device names rather than numbers to be on the safe side.

As the GTX 1050 is slower than the RTX 4000, an optimized “opencl_device_priority” could look like:


The GTX 1050 is explicitly excluded from processing the center image pixelpipe; this is reserved to “all” other devices (i.e. the RTX 4000). Conversely – for the preview pixelpipes – the RTX 4000, so that only the GTX 1050 is permitted to do the work.

For file export and thumbnail generation we want all hands on deck. However, darktable should first check whether the RTX 4000 device is free, because it’s faster. If it is not free, then all other devices – in fact only the GTX 1050 – are checked.